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The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business?

PRINCETON, NJ -- On this Veterans Day 2012, about 13% of U.S. adults overall are veterans, including 24% of men and 2% of women. Veteran status among men is highly related to age, moving above the majority level for those aged 65 and older. By contrast, 12% of men aged 25 to 34 are veterans.

The impact of the military draft is evident in the trends across age groups among men. The percentage of men who have served in the military jumps from about 20% among 45- to 59-year-olds to 39% among those aged 60 to 64, and then exceeds the 50% level among men who are older. The highest percentage of veterans (80%) occurs among men now 85 to 89, who would have been just entering their late teens during World War II and its immediate aftermath. The draft effectively ended for men in the early 1970s, helping explain the rapid dropoff in veteran status among those who are now aged 55 and younger.

Veteran status is very low across all age groups of women, but, unlike the case with men, it is slightly higher among women aged 25 to 54 than it is among older women. This no doubt reflects the changing gender composition of the nation's military forces.

A slightly higher percentage of those living in the Southeast and in the Rocky Mountain regions report being veterans, with slightly lower percentages in New England, the Middle Atlantic, and the East Central/Great Lakes regions.

Veteran status in the U.S. is highly related to both gender and age, reflecting historical patterns relating to mandatory military service, and the continuing highly male skew of service members. The significant majority of American men aged 75 and older are veterans, compared with no more than 12% of those younger than age 35. Younger women are slightly more likely than older women to be veterans, but veteran status does not rise much above 3% in any female age group.

Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of Gallup Daily tracking survey Jan. 2-Oct. 28, 2012, with a random sample of 293,309 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

Interviews are conducted with respondents on landline telephones and cellular phones, with interviews conducted in Spanish for respondents who are primarily Spanish-speaking. Each sample includes a minimum quota of 400 cellphone respondents and 600 landline respondents per 1,000 national adults, with additional minimum quotas among landline respondents by region. Landline telephone numbers are chosen at random among listed telephone numbers. Cellphone numbers are selected using random-digit-dial methods. Landline respondents are chosen at random within each household on the basis of which member had the most recent birthday.

Samples are weighted by gender, age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, education, region, adults in the household, and phone status (cellphone only/landline only/both, cellphone mostly, and having an unlisted landline number). Demographic weighting targets are based on the March 2011 Current Population Survey figures for the aged 18 and older non-institutionalized population living in U.S. telephone households. All reported margins of sampling error include the computed design effects for weighting and sample design.

The explosion of porn across the Internet is a phenomenon greatly feared and woefully understudied . A new Pew Research Center report on the online viewing habits of 1,003 Americans is the latest attempt to mine a bit of actual data about the pervasiveness of Internet porn. Pew found that just 12 percent of U.S. adults who use the Internet say that they've leveraged it to watch adult videos. Among online video watchers, 25 percent of men and 8 percent of women admitted to checking out some adult programming.

Because the survey was conducted over the telephone, those low percentages “may reflect a reluctance to report the behavior among some adults,” Pew reasons. Nevertheless, the number of Internet users who cop to engaging in the activity has risen markedly in recent years. In 2009, just 7 percent of Internet users said they watched adult videos; in 2007, 6 percent said so ; now it’s 12 percent. Unsurprisingly, the percentage is rising as the dead-tree Playboy generation declines and the internet porn generation comes of age: Among people who use the internet—about 15 percent of American adults still don’t—23 percent of 18-to-29-year-olds watch adult videos online, compared to 15 percent of 30-49-year-olds and 3 percent of internet users age 50-plus.

For most of us, when we walk into the gym, we have a specific goal in mind - a body type that we wish to resemble. It could have been a celebrity you saw in a magazine, an athlete that you saw competing in an international competition, or simply someone that you see in the gym each day, working hard on developing their own physique.

Most people, apart from those who are already competing in fitness, figure, or bodybuilding competitions, don't go in saying they want to be have 14.6% body fat. In fact, many don't even really know what 14.6% body fat would look like.

They may have a target weight in mind they'd like to reach, but it's really important that you realize that two people at 150 pounds can look entirely different. Using bodyweight as a measuring tool can provide you some reference, but it isn't the most ideal one to follow.

Knowing and understanding what different body fat percentages look like is going to help you better assess your progress. As you continually go about your cardio and weightlifting sessions, the goal is to either build muscle mass or drop fat mass (depending on your training method and calorie intake). It's not enough to see the scale move, you need to know which type of weight is being gained or lost.

The problem though is that many people don't have access to calipers - fancy equipment that will spit out your body fat percentage in a matter of minutes. By using pictures and descriptions though, you can place yourself fairly accurately with where you are now and where you would like to be.

When you're in the risky high body fat category (represented by over 30% body for males and over 40% body fat for females) you're going to see visible cellulite and excess fat all over the entire body. The body shape will look very round and often the body will bulge in certain places where the clothing is right around the skin.

Those in the excess fat category have 21-30% body fat for males and 31-40% body fat for females and won't have quite the degree of excess weight as those in the risky category but will still look largely overweight. These people may carry a decent amount of muscle mass, but it is for the most part covered in a thick layer of body fat as well.

When you move into the moderately lean category (13-20% for males, 23-30% for females) you will start seeing some muscular shape and definition, but it will take on a softer appearance rather than being more solid. This is a healthy range to be in and you will help offset many diseases by staying within this range.

While I’ve written extensively about body fat percentage in numerous articles including Ideal Body Fat Percentage Chart , 5 Ways to Measure Body Fat Percentage , and Ideal Body Weight Formula among many others, I’m hoping this article will help tie everything together by creating visual representations of what a given amount of body fat looks like for men and women.

I searched thousands of images in order to create this article. Most of the images I purchased from stock photography websites, but others are in the public domain (at least I hope). If one of these pictures is copyrighted, please let me know and I will list proper attributions, or replace it if need be.

Body Fat Percentage – is the amount of body fat (lb, or kg) divided by total body weight listed as a percentage. For example, a 180lb man with 30lb of body fat has a body fat percentage of 16% (30/180).

Body Fat Distribution – We all have different body fat distributions, or how fat is distributed across our body. For example, some women may have very little body fat on their abs, but a lot on their thighs and triceps, while others will have the opposite. Same thing goes with men, but most men carry fat in their stomachs. I tried my best to show pictures that highlighted the stomach region for men and the hips/thighs/stomach region for women.

Body Shape -Similar to body fat distribution is we all have different body shapes, so two different body shapes may have the same body fat percentage even if they don’t look like it. A classic example is a skinny runway model may have the same body fat percentage as a fit, athletic women.

Age – The pictures in this post assume ages of around 25-35 years old. Most body fat measurement devices will reflect higher body fat levels as the age increases. For example, a 20 year old man and a 50 year old man may have the same subcutaneous body fat measurement (fat under the skin), but the 20 year old may be 15% and the 50 year old will be at 20%. As we age, fat around the organs (visceral) and within muscle (intramuscular) tends to increase and most formulas take this into account.

Bodybuilders can drop as low as 3-4% body fat when preparing for bodybuilding competitions. This body fat level is characterized by extreme vascularity, so that veins are visible over just about every muscle in the body. There is clear separation between muscles, and striations visible on almost every muscle. The buttocks (I’ll spare you a back picture) even has striations, some vascularity, with little fat. If your buttocks doesn’t have any body fat, you’ve got VERY low body fat! Essential fat for a man is around 2%, which is the basic amount of fat a man needs for the body to function (fat protects internal organs in the chest and abdomen).

Approximately 6-7% body fat for a man is a bit less extreme than competition bodybuilders, but it’s still hovering at a level that is not sustainable for most men. Around this level, or slightly less, the face becomes gaunt, and your family starts worrying about you. This 6-7% body fat level, which is achieved by many male fitness models when doing photoshoots, is characterized by muscle definition in all muscles and clear vascularity in most muscles including arms, legs, and even abs. Vascularity over the abs muscle is a sign of very low body fat. Clear separation of muscles as well.

More than 8,000 self-identifying gay and bisexual men (or, as the researchers call them, MSM, for men who have sex with men) were tested by CDC workers in the 21 American cities with the highest infection rates. The gay population in Baltimore had the highest rates of HIV infection, at 38%, while Atlanta scored lowest, at 6%.

The highest absolute number of infections occurred in white MSM, primarily those between the ages of 30 to 39. However, young black gay and bisexual men (aged 13 to 29) had the highest rates of HIV infection per capita, and young Hispanic MSM also had disproportionately high rates of infection. ( More on ‘It Gets Better’: Wisdom From Grown-Up Gays and Lesbians to Bullied Kids )

HIV is a growing problem in other groups as well. The CDC study also found that the HIV infection rate in heterosexual black women is higher than in their white or Hispanic counterparts, and even higher than rates in Hispanic gay men. According to another CDC study , HIV infection was the leading cause of death for black women aged 25 to 34. Fully 81% of American women living with HIV are women of color.

Overall, the CDC estimates that more than 1 million people are living with HIV in the U.S., and that 21% are unaware of their infection. More than 18,000 people with AIDS still die each year. Although the total number of people living with HIV in the U.S. has increased in recent years, according to the CDC, but the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable — an estimated 56,300 Americans become infected each year.

There is no denying that the highest infection rates occur in gay and bisexual men. Although they account for 4% of the male population in the United States, their HIV-infection rate is 44 times the rate of heterosexual men. African-American men and men under 30 years old were the two groups least likely to be aware of their status. ( More on Multimedia: The Graying of AIDS )

When data on the two groups are broken apart, however, HIV-infection rates in bisexual men are lower than in gay men, according to a study in the American Journal of Public Health . Study author Gregorio Millett, the senior policy adviser for the White House Office of National AIDS Policy, explained why in a press statement, while focusing on the black population:

CDC estimates that the majority of new sexually transmitted infections are transmitted by individuals who are unaware of their infection, and studies show that once people learn they are HIV-infected, most take steps to protect their partners.  Therefore, because undiagnosed infection likely plays a major role in HIV transmission, reaching younger MSM with regular HIV testing is critical.

Since the start of the global HIV epidemic, in many regions, women have remained at a much higher risk of HIV infection than men. Young women and adolescent girls in particular, account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections among young people living with HIV.

In 2013, there were an estimated 380,000 new HIV infections among young women aged 15 to 24 every year, accounting for 60% of all new HIV infections among young people. 80% of all young women living with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. 1

A number of studies show that intimate partner violence (IPV) increases the risk of HIV infection as well as unwanted pregnancy. For example, a study from South Africa found that young women who experienced IPV were 50% more likely to acquire HIV than those who did not experience violence. 4

Societal norms regarding IPV also increase a woman’s risk of HIV. A study from Tanzania showed that while women are expected to be loyal to their partner even if they are in an abusive relationship, men are encouraged to engage in unprotected extramarital sex. 5

Another study of over 20,000 couples in India found that abusive husbands were more likely to be infected with HIV than non-abusive husbands. 6 In 2012, 37% of women living with HIV worldwide were thought to have been physically assaulted. 7

Disproportionately high levels of HIV infection are found among young women in relationships with older men. Relationships with large age differences are commonplace in sub-Saharan Africa and are often associated with unsafe sexual behaviour and low condom use due to unequal power in the relationship. 8

In some countries, women face significant barriers to accessing healthcare services. A lack of access to comprehensive HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services means that women are less able to look after their sexual health and reduce their risk of HIV infection.

In many settings, access to youth-friendly SRH and HIV services is inadequate, and where they do exist, are primarily for married women with children . In Kenya , Rwanda and Senegal, over 70% of unmarried sexually active girls aged 15 to 19 have not had their contraception needs met due to age restrictions. 9

Data about male teachers by State

The National Education Association (NEA) report Rankings of the States 2014 and Estimates of School Statistics 2015 , indicates that, in 2013, nearly one-fourth of the teachers in U.S. public schools were men.


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The body fat percentage is a measure of fitness level, since it is the only body measurement which directly calculates a person's relative body composition without regard to height or weight. The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights. While BMI largely increases as adiposity increases, due to differences in body composition, other indicators of body fat give more accurate results; for example, individuals with greater muscle mass or larger bones will have higher BMIs. As such, BMI is a useful indicator of overall fitness for a large group of people, but a poor tool for determining the health an individual.

Epidemiologically , the percentage of body fat in an individual varies according to sex and age. [2] Various theoretical approaches exist on the relationships between body fat percentage, health, athletic capacity, etc. Different authorities have consequently developed different recommendations for ideal body fat percentages.

In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16–19 years to 30.9% at age 60–79 years. In females, mean percentage body fat ranged from 32.0% at age 8–11 years to 42.4% at age 60–79 years. [3]

Essential fat is the level below which physical and physiological health would be negatively affected. Controversy exists as to whether a particular body fat percentage is better for one's health; athletic performance may also be affected. The leanest athletes typically compete at levels of about 6–13% for men or 14–20% for women. Bodybuilders may compete at ranges even lower than these levels. Certified personal trainers will suggest to male bodybuilders that they aim for a body fat percentage between 2% and 4% by contest time. However it is unclear that such levels are ever actually attained since (a) the means to measure such levels are, as noted below, lacking in principle, are inaccurate, and (b) 4–6% is generally considered a physiological minimum for human males. [4]

Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0.9 kilograms per litre. Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1.1 kilograms per litre for the density of the “fat free mass”, a theoretical tissue composed of 72% water (density = 0.993), 21% protein (density = 1.340) and 7% mineral (density = 3.000) by weight.

With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water. A correction is made for the buoyancy of air in the lungs and other gases in the body spaces. If there were no errors whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents.

X-rays of two different energies are used to scan the body, one of which is absorbed more strongly by fat than the other. A computer can subtract one image from the other, and the difference indicates the amount of fat relative to other tissues at each point. A sum over the entire image enables calculation of the overall body composition.

There are several more complicated procedures that more accurately determine body fat percentage. Some, referred to as multicompartment models, can include DXA measurement of bone, plus independent measures of body water (using the dilution principle with isotopically labeled water) and body volume (either by water displacement or air plethysmography ). Various other components may be independently measured, such as total body potassium.

This means safe-sex messages aimed at straight and gay men are likely missing this important subgroup, suggest Preeti Pathela, DrPH, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and colleagues.

"To reduce the burden of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection among men who have sex with men, it is of utmost importance for [ health care ] providers to take a sexual history that ascertains the sex of a partner," Pathela and colleagues report. "Asking about a patient's sexual identity will not adequately assess his risk."

In 2003, Pathela's team performed telephone interviews with nearly 4,200 New York City men. They conducted the interviews in English, Spanish, Chinese, and Russian; a translation service helped with interviews in Greek, Korean, Yiddish, Polish, and Haitian Creole.

Also, a man who says he is straight but is having sex with other men is more likely to be married than a straight man who has sex with women, according to the survey. Only 54% of the men who say they're straight and have sex with women are married, compared with the 70% marriage rate among the men who say they're straight but have sex with men.

Pathela and colleagues note that because they report fewer STDs and fewer sex partners than gay men, straight-identified men who have sex with men may think they are at lower risk of HIV and STDs. This isn't necessarily so.

The men with whom these straight-identified men have sex may themselves have multiple sex partners and elevated STD and HIV risk. The low rate of condom use makes the straight-identified men vulnerable.

"Prevention messages should focus on the activities that pose risk -- for example, unprotected receptive anal sex -- and should not be framed to appeal solely to gay-identified men," Pathela and colleagues suggest.

For example, testing when you’re dehydrated can result in abnormally high body fat measurements, testing after you eat can result in abnormally low measurements–in one study , testing in a fed state reduced body fat levels by 4.2 percentage points–and testing post-exercise can also produce inaccurate results .

For example, a lot of companies use hydrostatic weighing for this, and  studies have found that it can be off by up to 6 percentage points depending on factors like ethnicity, body weight, and hydration levels.

You use a tool called a  caliper  to measure your skin’s thickness at various points on your body, add up the measurements, and plug the sum into an equation designed to estimate your body fat percentage.

It works by taking a full-body X-ray that’s then used to calculate body fat percentage (X-ray energy is absorbed differently by fat and fat-free tissues, which makes it possible to measure each separately).

I’ve worked with thousands of people over the last few years and have encountered dozens who were freaking out over bizarrely high Bod Pod readings (guys with abs at 20%+ body fat, for example).

Click To Tweet For example, a 160-pound man with 10% body fat has 16 pounds of fat, while a 190-pound man with 10% body fat has only 3 more pounds of fat but a lot more muscle. And the latter will look much fitter.

Body water, for example, is measured via deuterium dilution , bone density is measured via hydrostatic weighing (which it’s good for, despite being a subpar method of measuring body fat percentage), and so on.

I’ve used this caliper with hundreds of people, and it rarely produces results that are wildly off base. The company says it should be accurate to within 1 to 2% with most people, and that squares with my experience.

Breast cancer is about 100 times less common among men than among women. For men, the lifetime risk of getting breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000. The number of breast cancer cases in men relative to the population has been fairly stable over the last 30 years.

Determine your body fat percentage with our body fat calculator. Use a tape measure to determine your waist, hip and neck circumference. Then input your gender and measurements below to receive a body fat index based on average values. The body fat index is not an indicator of fitness level since the calculation is made with no regard to height or weight.

Percentage of social scientists who were women, the heaviest representation of women among all STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields. Among other STEM fields, approximately 14 percent of engineers, 45 percent of mathematicians and statisticians, and 47 percent of life scientists were women. The rates of mathematicians and statisticians, and life scientists are not statistically different from each other.

Number of women enrolled in undergraduate college and graduate school in 2014. Women comprised 55.2 percent of all college students (undergraduate and graduate). 30.2 Percentage of women 25 and older who had obtained a bachelor's degree or more as of 2014. The percentage of men 25 and older who had obtained a bachelor's degree or more as of 2014 was 29.9 percent.

Percentage of female citizens 18 and older who reported voting in the 2014 election. By comparison, 40.8 percent of their male counterparts reported voting. Motherhood 43.5 million Estimated number of mothers age 15 to 50 in the U.S. in 2014.

Average number of children that women age 40 to 44 had given birth to as of 2014, down from 3.1 children in 1976, the year the Census Bureau first began collecting such data. The percentage of women in this age group who had ever given birth was 85 percent in 2014, down from 90 percent in 1976.





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